Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin
|Born||October 27 [O.S. October 15] 1855|
|Died||June 7, 1935(aged 79)|
|Institutions||Lenin All-Union Academy of Agriculture|
Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin (Russian: Иван Владимирович Мичурин) (October 27 [O.S. October 15] 1855 – June 7, 1935) was a Russian practitioner of selection to produce new types of crop plants, Honorable Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and academician of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agriculture.
Throughout all his life, Michurin worked to create new sorts of fruit plants. He introduced over 300 new varieties. He was awarded the Order of Lenin and Order of the Red Banner of Labour for his achievements. The town of Michurinsk is named in his honor, as was the Bulgarian town of Tsarevo between 1950 and 1991.
Life and work
In 1875, Michurin leased a strip of land of about 500 square metres not far from Tambov, began collecting plants, and started his research in pomology and selection. In 1899, he acquired a much bigger strip of land of about 130,000 square metres and moved all of his plants there.
In 1920, right after the end of the Russian Civil War, Vladimir Lenin ordered People's Commissar of Agriculture Semion Sereda to organize an analytic research project on Michurin's works and practical achievements. On September 11, 1922, Mikhail Kalinin visited Michurin at Lenin's personal request. On November 20, 1923, the Council of People's Commissars recognized Michurin's "fruit garden" as an institution of state importance. In 1928, the Soviets established a selectionist genetic station on the basis of Michurin's garden, which would be re-organized into the Michurin Central Genetic Laboratory in 1934.
Michurin made a major contribution in the development of genetics, especially in the field of pomology. In his cytogenetic laboratory, he researched cell structure and experimented with artificial polyploidy. Michurin studied the aspects of heredity in connection with the natural course of ontogenesis and external influence, creating a whole new concept of predominance. He proved that predominance depends on heredity, ontogenesis, and phylogenesis of the initial cell structure and also on individual features of hybrids and conditions of cultivation. In his works, Michurin assumed a possibility of changing genotype under external influence.
Michurin was one of the founding fathers of scientific agricultural selection. He worked on hybridization of plants of similar and different origins, cultivating methods in connection with the natural course of ontogenesis, directing the process of predominance, evaluation and selection of seedlings, and acceleration of the process of selection with the help of physical and chemical factors.
Michurin's method of crossing of geographically distant plants would be widely used by other selectionists. He worked out theoretical basis and some practical means for hybridization of geographically distant plants. Michurin also proposed means for overcoming the genetic barrier of incompatibility during the process of hybridization, such as pollination of the young hybrids during their first florescence,[clarification needed] preliminary vegetative crossing,[clarification needed] and use of a “mediator”, pollination with the mix of different kinds of pollen.
The Soviets began to cultivate Michurin's hybrids of apple, pear, cherry, rowan and others. The variety Antonovka is the most famous apple he developed. It is so popular in Russia that it was given the name The People's Apple. It is widely used in Russia and Poland for fresh eating and culinary purposes. In other parts of Europe and North America, it is principally used as a hardy rootstock. Michurin also cultivated hybrids of grape, apricot, sweet cherry and other southern plants in the northern climates.
One of the most highly cited phrases by Michurin was: "We cannot wait for favors from Nature. To take them from it – that is our task."
After his death Michurin's work was distorted and misinterpreted during the Lysenkovshchina, with Trofim Lysenko, a Ukrainian agronomist and biologist who rejected Mendelian genetics in favour of Lamarckism, claiming to be following in Michurin's footsteps. Lysenko's unorthodox and pseudo-scientific arguments earned the support of the party hierarchy, including that of Stalin himself, and hundreds of his opponents were purged from state institutions, with some being imprisoned or executed. The application of his ideas played an important factor in the famines that affected the Soviet Union. Although his theories fell from favour already in the 1950s, it was not until the 1960s that Lysenko's ideas would be fully condemned as quackery.
- Goncharov, N. P. (2016). "Ivan V. Michurin: On the 160th Anniversary of the Birth of the Russian Burbank". Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research. 6 (1): 105–127. doi:10.1134/S2079059716010068. S2CID 10884376.
- "Teaching of I.V. Michurin in Soviet morphology". Arkhiv Anatomii, Gistologii I émbriologii. 32 (4): 3–5. 1955. PMID 13283872.
- "100th Anniversary of birth of Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin". Mikrobiologiia. 24 (5): 521–4. 1955. PMID 13296881.
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- Malek, I (1950). "Michurinism and microbiology". Cas. Lek. Cesk. 89 (41): 1131–9. PMID 14772876.
- Stoletov, V. N. (1950). "Michurin and present times". Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR. Seriya Biologicheskaya. 3: 3–13. PMID 15428143.
- Goncharov, N. P. (2016), "Ivan V. Michurin: On the 160th Anniversary of the Birth of the Russian Burbank", Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, 6 (1): 105–127, doi:10.1134/S2079059716010068, S2CID 10884376