|Current region||Maghreb; North Western Algeria|
|Founder||Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan|
|Final ruler||Hassan I|
|Titles||Sultan of Tlemcen|
|History of Algeria|
The Zayyanid dynasty (Arabic: زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (Arabic: بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) was a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, mainly in modern Algeria centered on the town of Tlemcen in northwest Algeria. The Zayyanid dynasty's rule lasted from 1235 to 1557
On the collapse of the Almohad Caliphate's rule around 1236, the kingdom of Tlemcen became independent under the rule of the Zayyanids, and Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan. Ibn Zyan was able to maintain control over the rival Berber groups, and when faced with the outside threat of the Marinids, he formed an alliance with the Sultan of Granada and the King of Castile, Alfonso X.
After ibn Zyan's death, the Marinid sultan besieged Tlemcen for eight years and finally captured it in 1337–48, with Abu al-Hasan 'Ali as the new ruler. After a period of self-rule, it was governed again by the Marinid dynasty from 1352 to 1359 under Abu Inan Faris. The Marinids reoccupied it periodically, particularly in 1360 and 1370. In both cases, the Marinids found that they were unable to hold the region against local resistance. but these episodes appear to have marked the beginning of the end of the Zayyanid dynasty.
During the rule of Abu Malek the Zayyanids captured Fez and then all of Morocco and installed a ruler as a vassal of Tlemcen, thereby making Morocco a Zayyanid vassal. In the 15th century, expansion eastward was attempted, but proved disastrous, as consequences of these incursions they were so weakened that over the following two centuries, the Zayyanid kingdom was intermittently a vassal of Hafsid Ifriqiya, Marinid Morocco, or Aragon. When the Spanish took the city of Oran from the kingdom in 1509, continuous pressure from the Berbers prompted the Spanish to attempt a counterattack against the city of Tlemcen (1543), which was deemed by the Papacy to be a crusade. The Spanish failed to take the city in the first attack, although the strategic vulnerability of Tlemcen caused the kingdom's weight to shift toward the safer and more heavily fortified corsair base at Algiers.
List of rulers
Dates and most alternate names taken from John Stewart's African States and Rulers (1989).
|No.||Name||Alternate Name||Reign Begin||Reign End||Notes|
|1||Yghomracen Ibn Zyan||Abu Yahya I bin Zayyan||1236||March 1283||Founder|
|2||Abu Said Uthman I||Othmane Ibn Yaghmoracen||March 1283||6 June 1304||Son of Abu Yahya I|
|3||Abu Zayyan I||Abu Zayyar I Muhammad||6 June 1304||14 April 1308||Son of Abu Said Uthman I|
|4||Abu Hammu I||Abu Hamma I Musa||14 April 1308||22 July 1318||Brother of Abu Zayyan I|
Assassinated by his son Abu Tashufin I
|5||Abu Tashufin I||Abu Tashufin I Abdal Rahman||22 July 1318||May 1336||Son of Abu Hammu I|
|First Marinid conquest (1337–1348) (Marinid ruler was Abu al-Hasan Ali)|
|6||Abu Said Uthman II||Abu Sa'id Uthman II Abdal Rahman||1348||1352||Son of Abu Tashufin I|
Co-ruler with Abu Thabid I
|7||Abu Thabid I||Abu Thabit||1348||1352||Son of Abu Tashufin I|
Co-ruler with Abu Said Uthman II
|Second Marinid conquest (1352–1359) (Marinid ruler was Abu Inan)|
|8||Abu Hammu II Musa||Abu Hammu II ibn Abi Yaqub||February 1359||20 May 1360||First Reign|
Brother of Abu Said Uthman II
|9||Abu Zayyan II||Abu Zayyan Muhammad II ibn Uthman||20 May 1360||1360||Ruled during times when Abu Hammu II was forced from power|
|-||Abu Hammu II||-||1360||1370||Second Reign|
Expedition to Bugia defeated, 1366
|-||Abu Zayyan II||-||1370||1372||Second Reign|
|-||Abu Hammu II||-||1372||1383||Third Reign|
|-||Abu Zayyan II||-||1383||1384||Third Reign|
|-||Abu Hammu II||-||1384||1387||Fourth Reign|
|-||Abu Zayyan II||-||1387||1387||Fourth and final Reign|
|-||Abu Hammu II||-||1387||1389||Fifth and final Reign|
|10||Abu Tashufin II||Abu Tashufin II Abdal Rahman||1389||29 May 1393||Son of Abu Hammu I|
|11||Abu Thabid II||Abu Thabit II Yusuf||29 May 1393||8 July 1393||Son of Abu Tashufin I|
|12||Abul Hadjdjadj I||Abu Hadjjaj Yusuf||8 July 1393||November 1393||Brother of Abu Thabid II|
|13||Abu Zayyan II||Abu Zayyan II Muhammad||November 1393||1397||Brother of Abul Hadjdjadj I|
|14||Abu Muhammad I||Abu Muhammad Abdallah I||1397||1400||Brother of Abu Zayyan II|
|15||Abu Abdallah I||Abu Abdallah Muhammad I||1400||1411||Brother of Abu Muhammad I|
|16||Abd al-Rahman I||Abd al-Rahman ibn Musa U||1411||1411||Son of Abu Muhammad I|
|17||Said I||Abu Sa'id ibn Musa||1411||November 1412||Brother of Abu Muhammad I|
|18||Abu Malek I||Abu Malek Abd al-Wahid||November 1412||May 1424||First reign|
Brother of Said I
|19||Abu Abdallah II||Abu Abdallah Muhammad II||May 1424||1427||First reign|
Son of Abd al-Rahman I
|Interregnum – Civil War (1427–1429)|
|-||Abu Malek I||-||1429||1430||Second reign|
|-||Abu Abdallah II||-||1430||1430||Second reign|
|20||Abu Abbas Ahmad I||Abu al-Abbas Ahmad I||1430||January 1462||Son of Abu Thabid II|
|21||Abu Abdallah III||Abu Abdallah Muhammad III||February 1462||1468||Son of Abu Abbas Ahmad I|
|22||Abu Tashufin III||-||1468||1468||Son of Abu Abdallah III|
|23||Abu Abdallah IV||Abu Abdallah Muhammad IV||1468||1504||Brother of Abu Tashufin III|
|24||Abu Abdallah V||Abu Abdallah Muhammad V||1504||1517||Son of Abu Abdallah IV|
|25||Abu Hammu III||Abu Hammu III Musa||1517||1527||Son of Abu Abbas Ahmad I|
|26||Abu Muhammad II||Abu Muhammad Abdallah II||1527||January 1541||Brother of Abu Hammu III|
|27||Abu Zayyan III||Abu Zayyan Ahmad||January 1541||7 March 1543||First Reign|
Son of Abu Muhammad II
|28||Abu Abdallah VI||Abu Abdallah Muhammad VI||7 March 1543||June 1543||Brother of Abu Zayyan III|
|-||Abu Zayyan III||-||June 1543||1550||Second Reign|
|29||Al Hassan ibn Abdallah||-||1550||1557||Brother of Abu Zayyan III|
- "Algeria – Zayanids". countrystudies.us. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Abd al-Wadid Dynasty | Berber dynasty". Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- Appiah, Anthony; Gates, Henry Louis (1 January 2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195337709.
- Phillip Chiviges Naylor, North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present, (University of Texas Press, 2009), 98.
- "'Abd al-Wadid". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-Ak – Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2010. pp. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Delfina S. Ruano (2006), Hafsids, in Josef W Meri (ed.), Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia. Routledge., p. 309.
- "Qantara – The Abdelwadids (1236-1554)". Archived from the original on 7 July 2010.
- I. Hrbek (1997), The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34–43.
- Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
- Britannica.com: The ʿAbd al-Wādid Dynasty
- Qantara-med.org: The Abdelwadids (1236–1554) – by Yassir Benhima.
Media related to Zayyanid dynasty at Wikimedia Commons